What Are Participles? – Complete Explanation

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Well, in this occasion, I will give explanation about “What Are Participles?”.
Do you ever hear about this material before? If you are not, please pay attention my explanation about this material and read this material carefully. Oke, check this out.

What Are Participles?

A participle is a word formed from a verb which can be used as an adjective.

The two types of participles are the present participle (ending ing) and the past participle (usually ending -ed, -d, -t, -en, or -n).

Here are some participles being used as adjectives:

The Verb The Past Participle The Present Participle
To rise the risen sun the rising sun
To boil the boiled water the boiling water
To break the broken news the breaking news
To cook the cooked ham the cooking ham

Participle Phrases

It is really common to see participles in participle phrases. A participle phrase also acts like an adjective. In the examples below, the participle phrases are shaded and the participles are in bold:

  • The man carrying the bricks is my father.

(The participle phrase carrying the bricks describes the the man.)

  • She showed us a plate of scones crammed with cream.

(The participle phrase crammed with cream describes the scones.)

  • Whistling the same tune as always, Ted touched the front of his cap with his forefinger as she dismounted.

(The participle phrase Whistling the same tune as always describes Ted.)

  • Stunned by the blow, Mike quickly gathered his senses and searched frantically for the pepper spray.

(The participle phrase Stunned by the blow describes Mike.)

Read more about participle phrases.

Present Participles

Present participles end in -ing. Examples:

  • boiling water
  • caring nature
  • deserving recipient

Some more examples of present participles (shaded):

  • A laughing man is stronger than a suffering man. (Gustave Flaubert, 1821-1880)
  • If you pick up a starving dog and make him prosperous, he will not bite you. This is the principal difference between a dog and a man. (Mark Twain, 1835-1910)
  • The only thing that comes to a sleeping man is dreams. (Tupac Shakur)

Present participles are not just used as adjectives. They are also used to form verb tenses. Here are the verb tenses (present participles shaded):

The 4 Past Tenses Example
simple past tense I went
past progressive tense I was going
past perfect tense I had gone
past perfect progressive tense I had been going
The 4 Present Tenses Example
simple present tense I go
present progressive tense I am going
present perfect tense I have gone
present perfect progressive tense I have been going
The 4 Future Tenses Example
simple future tense I will go
future progressive tense I will be going
future perfect tense I will have gone
future perfect progressive tense I will have been going

Read more about present participles.

Past Participles

Past participles have various endings, usually -ed, -d, -t, -en, or -n. Examples:

  • broken window
  • painted frame
  • destroyed bridge

Some more examples of past participles (shaded):

  • A swollen eye is God’s way of telling you to improve your interpersonal skills.
  • Do not waste time staring at a closed door.
  • I like children…if they’re properly cooked. (W.C. Fields)

(Remember, an adjective can also appear after the noun it is modifying. See predicate adjectives.)

Past participles are also used to form verb tenses. Look at these verb tenses (past participles shaded):

The 4 Past Tenses Example
simple past tense I went
past progressive tense I was going
past perfect tense I had gone
past perfect progressive tense I had been going
The 4 Present Tenses Example
simple present tense I go
present progressive tense I am going
present perfect tense I have gone
present perfect progressive tense I have been going
The 4 Future Tenses Example
simple future tense I will go
future progressive tense I will be going
future perfect tense I will have gone
future perfect progressive tense I will have been going

Read more about past participles.

Perfect Participles

Perfect participles are formed like this:

“Having” + [past participle]

Examples:

  • Having taken
  • Having eaten
  • Having played

Some more examples of present participles (shaded):

  • Having heard the news, he quickly sold his brother’s record collection.
  • Having been promised a steak dinner, she looked less than impressed with her Happy Meal.

Okey.. I think my explanation about the point above is enough. If you have a question about the grammar rule I have just explained just now, you can write a comment in the comment form below. I will feel happy to answer your question or may be if you have suggestion or correction about it, you can also write a comment..

Refference
https://www.grammar-monster.com/glossary/participles.htm

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